In December 2019, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) emerged, causing nearly 3 million deaths to date the world over.
Since the emergence of this deadly virus, scientists have made continual efforts to develop therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and vaccines against this disease. In November 2020, the FDA gave emergency use authorization for Monoclonal Antibody therapies (MAB) to treat mild to moderate COVID-19 patients. The observations made by clinical studies on MAB efficacy have been indecisive with some showing reduction of viral load and rate of hospitalization while some have shown no therapeutic benefits against COVID-19.
Study On Benefits Of Early Monoclonal Therapies On COVID-19
FDA states that patients who receive COVID-19
Introduction Of The Study
Northwell Health in New York conducted a large-scale MAB infusion program to reduce disease severity, hospitalization rate, and mortality rate among patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. The clinical outcome of almost 3000 COVID-19 patients who received MAB infusion therapy has been discussed in the study. This study is available at the medRxiv* preprint server.
Finding As Per Clinical Outcomes
According to the study, the timing of initiating MAB therapy plays a crucial role in determining its efficacy against COVID-19.
How Was The Study Conducted
The effectiveness of two MAB therapies, bamlanivimab, and casirivimab/ imdevimab have been discussed in the study. Adult COVID-19 patients who received MAB therapy between November 2020 and January 2021 were included in the study. The mortality rate in hospitalized COVID-19 patients who received MAB therapies was analyzed. The clinical outcomes of these patients have been compared with the outcomes of those who were eligible for MAB therapy but didn’t receive any. Around 2818 symptomatic COVID-19 patients who received MAB therapies were analyzed.
- Hypertension and obesity were the most common comorbidities observed.
- Cough, malaise, fever, and headache were the most common symptoms observed.
- Majority of patients requiring hospitalization post-MAB therapies were suffering from comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease, pulmonary disease, and immunosuppressive disease.
- Investigation of hospitalization rate was conducted. The rates of hospitalization for patients who received MAB therapy within 4 days, 5 to 7 days or more than 8 days of onset of symptoms were 4.4%, 5%, and 6.1%, respectively.
- In the case of patients who were eligible for MAB therapy but did not receive it, about 5% and 7% were presented to the emergency department and hospitalized, respectively, within 28 days of a positive COVID-19 test.
Clinical Outcomes Of Hospitalised Patients
Clinical outcomes of 145 in-hospital patients with MAB therapy and 200 in-hospital patients without MAB therapy were analyzed.
The observed mortality rate for in-hospital patients with MAB therapy was 11% and 10.5% in in-hospital patients without MAB therapy. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare both groups. However, no significant relationship was observed between the pre-hospitalization MAB therapy and time to death.
Why Is This Study Significant?
The effects of MAB therapy on symptomatic COVID-19 patients who are at high risk for disease progression have been described in the study. The findings reveal that the timing of initiation of MAB therapy is crucial to determine the efficacy of the therapy.
The benefits of initiating MAB therapy can be maximized if the same is initiated soon after the onset of symptoms.
Please note that medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reports that are not peer-reviewed. Therefore, this study should not be regarded as conclusive, or as a guide for clinical practice/ health-related behavior. The information given should not be treated as established information.